Addressing On-Leash Dog-Dog Reactivity- Part 2- CPT Surround Dog Drills

Dog Reactivity- CPT Surround Dog Drills- Dog in Front and Behind

Addressing Bruin’s Dog Reactivity


The videos and text describing our work with Lola explained the seven CPT counterconditioning and desensitization drills that we commonly perform in cases of on-leash conspecific excitability or aggression.  Once dogs excel at the seven initial drills we have several alternatives for furthering their training.  One alternative is the CPT “Surround Dog Drills.”  Another alternative, is moving locations from CPT to the venue in which the owner typically walks his/her dog and where the dog has historically exhibited problematic reactive behavior.  In some cases, we need to include both forms of advanced reactivity training to ensure the highest probability of successful behavior modification and owner satisfaction.

The videos in this post show the CPT Surround Dog Drills.  The Surround Dog Drills literally surround the subject dog with two or more volunteer dogs.  Therefore, the amount of stimulation is multiplied from the initial set of CPT Dog Reactivity Drills.  The Surround Dog Drills are very similar to the Reactivity Drills that incorporate one volunteer, except for the Walking in Pack Drills we will place a volunteer simultaneously in front and in back of the subject dog or on each side of the subject dog.  In the Dual Approach Drills volunteer dogs will approach on each side.  Consequently, the Surround Dog drills are vastly more difficult.

Legal and Ethical Issues in U.S. Sports Betting

In recent years, the landscape of sports betting in the United States has undergone significant changes, sparking debates and discussions surrounding the legal and ethical implications of this booming industry. As more states legalize and regulate sports betting, questions arise about the potential consequences on athletes, fans, and the integrity of sports competitions. From concerns about match-fixing to the impact on vulnerable populations, the intersection of sports and gambling raises complex issues that demand careful examination.

This article delves into the multifaceted world of U.S. sports betting, exploring the key legal and ethical considerations that underpin this evolving phenomenon. By analyzing the current regulatory framework, exploring the ethical dilemmas faced by stakeholders, and examining the broader societal impacts, we aim to shed light on the complexities of sports betting in America. Join us on this journey as we navigate the intricate web of laws, values, and controversies that define the intersection of sports and gambling in the contemporary landscape.

Regulatory Frameworks and Compliance in Sports Betting

When it comes to legal and ethical issues in U.S. sports betting, one major concern is the regulation of online platforms. The rise of internet gambling has led to a surge in the number of online sportsbooks, with some operating without proper licensing or oversight. This raises questions about the integrity of the industry and the protection of consumers. It is crucial for players to do their due diligence and choose to wager only on reputable and licensed platforms, such as the best online sportsbook, to ensure fair play and secure transactions.

Furthermore, there are ethical considerations surrounding the impact of sports betting on society, particularly in terms of addiction and problem gambling. The easy accessibility of betting options through online platforms can contribute to compulsive behavior and financial harm for vulnerable individuals. Responsible gambling practices, including setting limits on wagering and seeking help when needed, are essential to mitigate these risks. It is imperative for both operators and regulators to prioritize consumer protection and promote ethical standards within the sports betting industry to safeguard the well-being of all participants.

Impact of Sports Betting on Athletes and Sports Integrity

Legal and ethical issues in U.S. sports betting have become a focal point of discussion as laws and regulations surrounding this industry continue to evolve. One major concern is the potential for match-fixing and point-shaving scandals, which could compromise the integrity of sports competitions. To address this, regulatory bodies and sports leagues are implementing strict monitoring systems and protocols to detect any suspicious activities that may indicate foul play.

Another key issue is the protection of vulnerable populations, such as minors and individuals with gambling addictions. The accessibility of online sports betting platforms raises concerns about underage gambling and the negative impact it can have on young people. To mitigate these risks, responsible gambling measures, age verification protocols, and educational campaigns are being implemented to promote safe and responsible betting practices.

Furthermore, the legality of sports betting varies across different states in the U.S., leading to a fragmented regulatory landscape. This lack of uniformity creates challenges for both operators and consumers, as they navigate through a complex web of regulations that differ from state to state. Harmonizing these laws and regulations to create a more consistent framework is crucial to ensure transparency, fairness, and consumer protection in the sports betting industry.

Lastly, the advertising and marketing practices of sports betting operators have come under scrutiny for their potential to glamorize gambling and target vulnerable populations. There are concerns that aggressive marketing tactics could normalize excessive gambling behavior and contribute to the rise of problem gambling cases. As a result, there are calls for stricter advertising regulations and responsible marketing practices to safeguard consumers and uphold ethical standards within the sports betting industry.

Consumer Protection and Responsible Gaming Practices

Legal and ethical issues in U.S. sports betting have been at the forefront of discussions as more states legalize this form of gambling. One of the major legal concerns is the lack of consistency in regulations across different states, leading to a fragmented landscape where rules can vary widely. This inconsistency can create challenges for both operators and bettors, as they navigate different requirements and restrictions depending on their location.

On the ethical front, there are concerns regarding problem gambling and addiction, particularly among vulnerable populations. The easy accessibility of sports betting through online platforms raises questions about responsible gambling measures and whether they are sufficient to protect individuals from harm. Additionally, there are worries about the integrity of sports competitions and the potential for match-fixing or other illicit activities that could undermine the fairness and legitimacy of the games. These ethical dilemmas highlight the importance of robust regulations and oversight to ensure that sports betting is conducted in a transparent and responsible manner.

Ethical Considerations in Sports Betting Advertising and Sponsorship

Legal and ethical issues in U.S. sports betting have been a topic of significant debate and concern in recent years. With the legalization of sports betting in several states, questions have arisen regarding the potential negative impacts on society, particularly in terms of problem gambling and addiction. The rapid expansion of sports betting has raised ethical considerations about the exploitation of vulnerable individuals and the potential for increased financial hardship among those with gambling disorders.

One of the primary legal issues surrounding sports betting in the United States is the lack of uniformity in regulations across different states. While some states have embraced sports betting and enacted comprehensive regulatory frameworks, others have chosen to prohibit or heavily restrict it. This patchwork of laws has created challenges for both operators and consumers, leading to inconsistencies in oversight and consumer protection measures.

Furthermore, concerns have been raised about the integrity of sports competitions in the context of widespread betting. The potential for match-fixing and other forms of corruption poses a significant threat to the credibility and fairness of sports events. Maintaining the integrity of sports competitions requires robust regulatory mechanisms and collaboration between sports organizations, law enforcement agencies, and betting operators to detect and prevent illicit activities.

In conclusion, the legalization of sports betting in the U.S. has sparked a complex and multifaceted discussion around the legal and ethical implications of this rapidly growing industry. Balancing the economic benefits of sports betting with the need to protect consumers and preserve the integrity of sports competitions remains a critical challenge for policymakers, regulators, and stakeholders. Addressing these issues will require a concerted effort to establish clear and effective regulatory frameworks that prioritize transparency, accountability, and responsible gambling practices.

As the landscape of sports betting in the United States continues to evolve, it is crucial for stakeholders to navigate the intricate web of legal and ethical considerations. From concerns surrounding fair play and integrity to the protection of vulnerable populations, the industry faces a myriad of challenges that demand thoughtful solutions. By fostering transparency, accountability, and responsible practices, the future of sports betting can be shaped in a way that upholds both legal standards and ethical principles. With ongoing dialogue and collaboration among policymakers, regulators, operators, and consumers, the path forward holds the promise of a balanced and sustainable sports betting environment that prioritizes integrity and the well-being of all involved.


Bruin is a 2-year old, intact, male, German Shepherd that was described by the owner, Rachel, as friendly with dogs, but unmanageable on the leash amidst other dogs. Despite Rachel being a former D1 athlete and despite two 8-week group classes at a big box retailer, Rachel remained concerned that Bruin might cause her inadvertent physical injury, as sometimes he literally dragged her when wanting to meet other dogs.

In one private lesson, CPT switched Bruin’s equipment from a fur saver collar and nylon leash to a Gentle Leader collar and a high-quality leather leash, acclimated Bruin to the equipment, taught Bruin how to walk properly on a loose leash in heel position, taught Rachel proper leash walking mechanics, and then proceeded with multiple counterconditioning and systematic desensitization drills with individual volunteer dogs. Whereas we often use a clicker when conducting dog-dog behavior modification, Rachel was concerned about prior aversive conditioning to the clicker. Therefore, we instead used a distinctive verbal reward marker, an elongated, whisper-voiced “Yessss.”

Rachel and Bruin flew through the individual drills with our volunteer team of CPT Trainer Patricia King and service dog-in-training Sookie. Consequently, we progressed to the next level by introducing a “surround-dog” environment consisting of both Patricia/Sookie and CPT Apprentice Trainer Dan Koss and Jordan, another service dog-in-training.

The video shows the CPT Walking in Pack- Dog Behind and Dog in Front Drills in a surround-dog environment. As seen in the video, in just one appointment Bruin and Rachel made outstanding progress. Using the CPT leash walking protocols, Rachel could walk Bruin with control throughout, even with Sookie and Jordan 1 – 3 feet away. Moreover, a majority of the time Bruin was on a completely loose leash and a notable part of the time he focused on Rachel, rather than on the volunteer dogs.

After Bruin excelled at the CPT Surround Dog Walking in Pack- Dog in Front and Behind Drills, we progressed to the CPT Surround Dog Walking in Pack- Dogs Alongside Drill. Each of the drills encompasses a different spatial perspective in which a client dog may encounter another dog (or multiple dogs) while on a walk.

Which drill is most difficult depends on the dog. Anxious dogs are often most perturbed by a dog coming toward them from behind, whereas excitable dogs and highly dominant or territorial dogs are often most aroused by direct approaches. As observed in the video, Bruin was obviously more aroused walking alongside in a surround drill, where the volunteer dogs were simultaneously lateral to his right and left, than he was in the previous surround drill, where dogs were simultaneously positioned to his front and rear. Eye contact, especially from Jordan, tended to stimulate Bruin.

Bruin did very well initially in the CPT Surround Dog Walking in Pack- Dogs Alongside Drill, when the distances between the dogs was greater. However, as we progressed with systematic desensitization and diminished distances, we approached Bruin’s threshold, whereby Rachel had a harder time walking Bruin with a loose leash and he paid less attention to Rachel than he did to Jordan. Nevertheless, we accomplished significant improvement in just one appointment.

In future sessions and/or during client homework, we may further diminish distance as Bruin’s threshold improves, incorporate less calm volunteer dogs, use more volunteer dogs that cover more positions, require superior performance for Bruin to earn a “Yesss” and food reward, reduce the frequency of food rewards, add the CPT Surround Dog- Dual Approach Drills, and practice with Bruin in historically difficult environments.

Yet, although there is more to do to achieve our ultimate objective, in just one session we certainly exceeded our first-stage objective of enabling Rachel to safely walk Bruin on a loose leash without being dragged around the neighborhood.

For additional information on canine behavior modification please review the Dog Training Articles and Instructional Tips sections of or check out the CPT Facebook Page.


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